Monday, 10 December 2018

State Profile- Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand map


Brief Demographic, Economic and Infrastructure Overview of the State

Demographic Overview

Uttarakhand, located at the foothills of the Himalayas, is characterized by diverse geographical features ranging from snow-capped mountain peaks in the North to tropical forests in the South. It has been divided into two regions- the western region- Garhwal Mandal and the eastern region- Kumaon Mandal. It is divided into 13 districts which consist of 95 blocks. The table below gives key demographic indicators and their comparison with pan-India numbers-

S.No. Indicators Unit Uttarakhand India
1 Geographical Area Lakh Sq. Km 0.53 32.87
2 Population Crore 1.01 121.02
3 Decadal Growth Rate Percentage 19.17 17.64
4 Density of Population Population/Sq. Km. 189 382
5 Urban to Total Population Percentage 30.49 31.16
6 Sex Ratio Females/1000 Males 963 940
7 Literacy Rate (LR) Percentage 79.60 74.04

Economic Overview

At current prices, the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Uttarakhand was Rs. 9316172 lakh in 2011-12. Between 2004-05 and 2011-12, average annual GSDP growth rate was 18.6 percent. Of this, the contribution of primary sector (comprising agriculture and allied activities) stood at Rs. 1306950 lakh, of secondary sector stood at Rs. 3187796 lakh and that of the tertiary sector stood at Rs. 4821426 lakh. Growth rates of the sectors- primary: 13.50 percent, secondary: 12 percent and tertiary 12.40 percent. The state has been accorded ‘Special Category’ status by Government of India. Key economic indicators are elaborated in the table below:-

Particular Unit 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) Lakh Rs.
Constant (2004-05) Prices 5562599 5856073 6258554
Current Prices 8291795 9316172 10754825
Economic Growth Rate as per GSDP Percent
Constant Prices - 5.28 6.87
Per Capita Income Rs. 79940 90843

Infrastructure Overview

  • Roads: Total road length in the state was 36,614.2 km in 2010-11.
  • Railways: Total length of the rail network in the state, as in 2010-11 approx. 350 km.
  • Airports: The state has two domestic airports: one at Jolly Grant in the Dehradun district and another at Pant Nagar in the Udham Singh Nagar district.
  • Power: As of January 2013, the state had a power generation installed capacity of 2,556.56 MW which consisted of 1,422.97 MW under state utilities, 718.54 MW under centre utilities and 415.05 MW under private sector.

Land Use

Out of a total geographical area of 5.35 million ha in the state, 4.6 million ha (86%) is hilly area and 0.74 million ha (14%) is plain area. Only about 14 percent of the geographical area is cultivable which is mainly attributed to the topography of the state. Because of its location and diverse climate, the State has certain unique advantages for development of horticulture, agro processing industries, organic farming, off season vegetable cultivation and cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants which can be gainfully exploited. Similarly, service sector, particularly tourism offers a large potential for employment generation in both urban and rural areas. The State is having about 61.1% area under forests. The share of net sown area a only about 14 % as against the national average of 43.37%. The share of culturable wasteland is about 7% which provides a huge potential for fodder trees and other plantation crops including fruits.

           Agriculture is a predominant sector in the state economy which contributes around 23.4% in State Domestic Product (GDP).The average size of land holding in the state is 0.95 ha (Marginal-0.39, Small-1.38, Medium-3.33 and Large-36.00) as against the National Average of 1.57 ha. The share of small and marginal holdings is higher in Uttarakhand State as compared to National Average. The agriculture sector in the state continues to remain heavily depended on rainfall. The net Irrigated area in the State is 3.45 lakh ha. Out of which 85.83% is in plains and 14.17% are is in hills. The irrigation intensity in the State is 159% which varies between 155% in plains to 184% in hilly region.

Agro Climatic Zones

The state has different agro-climatic conditions, slopes and height. Details of Physiographic

Zones and farming situations in the state are as under:

S.N Zone Farming situation Soil



Districts Principal farm produces and Livestock
1 Zone A up to 1000 M Tarai irrigated Alluvial 1400 U.S. Nagar, Haridwar Rice, wheat, sugarcane, lentil, chickpea, rapeseed mustard, mango, Litchi, guava, peach and plums. Livestock: Buffalo and cattle



Alluvial mixed with boulders and shingles 1400 Nainital, Dehradun and Pauri Garhwal Rice, wheat, sugarcane, rapeseed mustard, potato, lentil, mango, guava and litchi. Livestock: Buffalo and cattle
Irrigated lower hills (600-1000M) Alluvial sandy soil 2000-2400 Champawat, Pauri Garhwal, Dehradun, Nainital, Tehri Garhwal

Rice, Wheat, onion, chilly, peas, potato, radish, cauliflower, pulses, oilseeds, soybean, mango, guava, plums and peaches.

Livestock: Buffalo and cattle

Rain-fed lower hills (600-1000M) Residual sandy loam 2000-2400

Champawat, Nainital, Pauri Garhwal, Dehradun, Tehri Garhwal, Bageshwar

finger millet, Maize, rice, wheat, pulses, mango, guava, plums and peaches.

Livestock: Buffalo, cattle and goat


Zone B


Mid hills south aspect (1000-1500 M) Sandy loam 1200-1300 Champawat, Nainital, Almora, Dehradun, Tehri Garhwal, Bageshwar

Rice, finger millet, wheat, potato, tomato, peas, cole crops, pulses, peach and plums.

Livestock: Cattle, sheep & goat


Zone C


High hills

(1500-2400 M)

Red to dark 1200-2500 Pithoragarh, Almora, Chamoli, Bageshwar

Amaranth, finger millet, French-beans, Cole crops, potato, peas, peaches, plums, pear, apple and stone fruits.

Livestock: Cattle, sheep and goat


Zone D>

2400 M

Very High hills Red to dark Black clay 1300 Pithoragarh, Chamoli and Uttarkashi

Amaranth, buckwheat, peas, Cole crops, apple and potato.

Livestock: Sheep & goat

Production Base/Resource Mapping


Uttarakhand is traditionally an agrarian state. Close to 78 percent of the population depends on agriculture for livelihood. The total food grain and cereal production in the state in 2011-12 was estimated at approximately 1.75 lakh MT. Sugarcane, wheat and rice are the key agricultural products of the state. Wheat is the main crop and accounts for about 50% of total food grain production in the state. Uttarakhand is deficit in production of food grains and depends on imports from other states. Production of key agricultural is given in the following table.

Produce Annual Production in 2011-12 (000 Tonnes)
Sugarcane 6596
Wheat 874
Rice 599


The geographical attributes and climatic conditions of the state are ideal for production of temperate and subtropical fruit crops. In hilly areas, fruits like apple, pear, peach, plum, khumani and walnut are produced while mango, litchi, malta, santra, lemon, aonla, guava, and pomegranate are mostly grown in Tarai and valley areas. Major vegetables grown in the state are potato, cauliflower, tomato, onion, brinjal, pea, cabbage and okra. The state has a unique advantage of producing off-season vegetables in hilly areas, which fetches good price in the market. Major spices are ginger, garlic, turmeric and chilly. Details of area, production and productivity of major Horticulture crops in the state are as under (2012-13):



(lacs ha)


(lacs MT)





(MT/ha) National level

Rank in the Country-in terms of productivity Rank in the Country-in terms of production
Fruit 2.00 7.578 3.79 11.70 30th 18th


(including Potato)

0.91 10.82 11.89 17.30 23th 19th
Spices 0.11 0.80 7.27 1.80 01st 19th
Flowers 0.016


Cut-2939 lacs no

- - - Overall 8th and 2nd in cut flowers


Component 2013-14
Area (ha) Production (MT)
a) Apple 31516.68 122174.30
b) Pear 15224.25 101998.80
c) Peach 9154.80 48387.65
d) Plum 9678.00 37562.00
e) Apricot 9064.63 31973.50
f) Walnut 19267.00 21440.60
g) Citrus varieties 28184.39 136046.87
h) Mango 40211.00 147272.70
i) Litchi 9559.00 19130.18
j) Anola 565.50 1253.65
k) Guava 1878.00 11672.32
l) Other Fruits 25497.50 110035.05
Total 199800.75 788947.62


Component 2013-14
Area (ha) Production (MT)
a) Pea 12325.30 86255.65
b) Radish 4683.00 58256.50
c) French Bean 5340.50 38800.60
d) Cabbage 5820.80 71744.70
e) Cauliflower 2841.40 37390.30
f) Onion 3951.80 40740.20
g) Capsicum 2392.10 13169.50
h) Okra 3328.60 26604.80
i) Tomato 8990.90 111668.60
j) Brinjal 3568.87 22630.64
k) Other Vegetables 11956.40 128930.90
l) Potato 25742.80 446959.20
                         Total 90942.47 1083151.59




Name of Spices 2013-14
Area (ha) Production (MT)
1. Turmeric 1046.70 8491.79
2. Chilli 2102.50 7504.80
3. Coriander 872.80 2811.40
4. Garlic 1383.20 9248.93
5. Ginger 4803.30 47671.40
6. Other spices 1008.50 4838.61
Total 11217.00 80566.93




Name of flowers 2013-14
Area (ha) Production (MT)
1. Gerbera 89.50 966.84
2. Carnation 31.00 233.47
3. Gladiolas 480.52 623.51
4. Marigold 680.29 1450.58
5. Rose 160.70 153.23
6. Tuberoses 27.00 320.00
7. Lilium 8.25 12.31
8. Others 133.75 130.45
Total 1611.01

2054.26 MT &

1836.13 lakh spike

                  Ranking of Uttarakhand in Horticulture in India

  • Uttarakhand is second in production of cut flowers (3567.56 lakh spikes) after Maharashtra, second in walnut (21.8 thousand MT) after J&K, and third in apples (1.23 lakh MT) after J&K and Himachal Pradesh in the country.
  • Productivity of spices is highest in Uttarakhand (7.21MT/ha) against national average of 1.8 MT/ha.

Dairy and Livestock:

According to the 18th Livestock Census 2007, total livestock in the state was approximately 51 lakh. Poultry population stood at 26 lakh. Production of Meat (goats and sheep) was 6192 MT and Production of Meat (cattle &Buffalo) was 1470 MT. Additionally, milk production was at 12.06 lakh MT, fish production was 3818 MT and production of fish seed stood at approximately 350.00 lakh in 2009-10. Egg production stood at 2614 lakh in 2010-11.

Agriculture Marketing Infrastructure in the State

Uttarakhand Krishi Utpadan Mandi Parisad (UKUMP) is the nodal agency responsible for agricultural marketing in the state. UKUMP has a created state-wide network for marketing of agricultural produce with 25 Principal Market Yards, 31 Sub Market Yards and 27 Weekly Markets. To ensure marketing of horticulture produce, 18 separate marketing yards have been established in the state- 3 wholesale markets have been established under Mini Mission – III of HMNEH at Dehradun, Haldwani and Haridwar, under RKVY, 3 Farmer Consumer Markets have been setup in Dehradun viz Majri Grant in Doiwala Block, Danda Lakhond and Nanurkhera in Raipur Block. Government of Uttarakhand has established a separate Uttarakhand Horticulture Marketing Board to assist farmers of the state in Marketing of horticulture produce.

Status of APMC Act: The state government has amended the APMC Act, in line with Model Act 2003. The amended Act facilitates setting up of private markets, farmer consumer markets, contract farming, e-trading etc.

Status of Logistics and Warehousing Facilities in the State: FCI has approximately 2 lakh MT of storage capacity in the state (as on February 2013) with utilization level of 82 percent. This includes 0.24 lakh MT of storage capacity hired by the FCI from the state Govt., 0.41 lakh MT from CWC and 0.49 lakh from the SWC.

Cold storages: 15 cold storages have been set up in the state- 1 by the cooperative sector, 2 by the public sector and 12 by the private sector. Besides, one Controlled Atmosphere (CA) storage has been set up by private sector for storage of apples in Nawgaun, district Uttarkashi.

Policy / Administrative Measures in Horticulture Sector:

  • Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry was established in 2011 at Bharsar, District Pauri, Uttarakhand is the 3rd State to set up separate University for Horticulture and Forestry. Other States are Andhra Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. This University has taken up a number of new initiatives in the fields of extension, research and certificate level courses for the benefit of staff as well as lay farmers. Notable among these is the Operation Veg, under which high yielding varieties of onion were introduced to the farmers that resulted in yield three times higher than the prevailing cultivars.
  • Single window system has been created to expedite sanction / clearance of projects under schemes of HMNEH, NMFP, NHB and APEDA.
  • A separate Horticulture Marketing Board has been setup.
  • To promote protected cultivation especially among small and marginal farmers and hilly areas, Mukhyamantri Sanrakshit Kheti Yojana has been launched during 2011-12with provision of 30% additional subsidy from State budget up to 200 sqm Green Houses per beneficiary.
  • Weather Based Crop Insurance cover has been provided to farmers for apple, litchi, mango, tomato, potato and ginger.
  • Fruit Wine Policy incorporating a number of fiscal incentives has been promulgated to promote wineries.

 Status of Food Processing Industry in Uttarakhand

  • Four Agri Export Zones (AEZs) have already been declared under the AEZ scheme of Government of India for litchi, floriculture, herbs & medicinal plants and basmati rice.
  • A Mega Food Park (Patanjali Food & Herbal Park Ltd.) has been set up at Haridwar under The Mega Food Parks Scheme of Ministry of Food Processing Industries. Another Mega Food Park has been granted In-principle approval by MoFPI in Udham Singh Nagar district.
  • Leading players in food processing industry like Nestle, Britannia, Dabur and ITC have setup their processing facilities in the state with cumulative investments of over Rs. 2500 million. In addition, there are a number of small and medium sized food processing units in the state.
  • The status of Food Processing Industry in the State is as under:-
Total established units: 70
Horticulture based units established under MM-IV of HMNEH: 28
Other food processing units established under ongoing schemes of MoFPI: 42
Total private sector investment made: Rs 594.37 crore
Subsidy sanctioned by the Govt. Rs. 90.55 crore

Taxation Policy- State Govt.


The State levies VAT on most of the processed food items at the rate of 4 percent. For certain products under the processed foods category, rates are mentioned in table below:

Vat rate in % Items
0 Fresh fruits and vegetables, fresh fruit juice, fruits shakes, fresh milk, pasteurized milk, butter milk, curd and lassi.
1% Atta, Maida, Suji, Besan and Pulses.
4% All processed and preserved vegetables, mushrooms and fruits including fruit jams, jellies, fruits squash, paste, fruit juices, and Pizza bread etc .

Policy Framework Governing the Industrial Sector

The Special Integrated Industrial Promotion Policy, 2008 for Hilly & Remote Areas of Uttarakhand

State Government has announced the Special Integrated Industrial Promotion Policy 2008 for Hilly & Remote Areas of Uttarakhand to provide incentives for setting up of industries. This Scheme came into force in April 2008 and shall remain in operation till March 2018.

Classification of the Remote Hilly regions

The following hill areas have been categorized for the entitlement of financial incentives under the Integrated Industrial Package Scheme declared for the remote hilly regions.


The remote hill and border districts of the State including the newly created districts comprising of the hill territories of the district Uttarkashi, Pithoragarh, Chamoli, Champawat and Rudraprayag.


The territories of district Pauri Garhwal, Tehri, Almora and Bageshwar including the Development Blocks forming the hill areas in district Dehradun and Nainital except the territories comprising the Doiwala, Sahaspur and Raipur Blocks in district Dehradun and the territories comprising the Haldwani and Ramnagar Blocks in district Nainital.

The salient features of the fiscal incentives and concessions provided under the Scheme are:-

  • Land development promotional scheme

    Allotment of land for setting up of industrial units on priority basis with availability of general facilities like electricity, road, water supply, connecting roads etc.

    Full concession on stamp duty for purchase / lease of land from industrial areas developed by State Govt. / private sector

    The process of land use change to be simplified

    Special State Capital Production Incentive: Industries making investment in certain areas of the state shall be provided capital incentives depending on the areas- at the rate of 25 percent of the total investment subject to a maximum of Rs. 35 lakh in certain areas and at the rate of 20 percent of the total investment subject to a maximum of Rs. 25 lakh in other area

  • Interest subsidy: Industries (in specified geographies) seeking loan through Banks/Financial Institutions shall be given incentives of loans at concessional rates- of simple interest up to @ 6 percent per annum on term loan, with a ceiling of Rs. 5 lakh per unit per annum to units in some areas and @ 5 percent subject to ceiling of Rs 3 lakh per unit per annum in other designated areas.

  • Concession in VAT: State Govt. will pay up to 75 percent of the total payable amount of VAT on fruit based beverages units located in certain designated areas. And up to 90 percent in other designated areas.

  • Power Concession to new Industrial Units: All new industrial units (in designated areas) engaged in manufacturing and production of goods including the industrial enterprises engaged in the activities in service sector shall be entitled for 100 percent rebate or exemption on electric bills for a period of ten years. This is not applicable to hotels, resorts, furnaces etc. The industries based on fruit preservation, herbal and medicinal plants and domestic produce shall be given due preference and priorities in this scheme.

  • Grant towards transport subsidy in hilly areas: In order to promote industrial units based on raw material produced in hilly areas, the transport subsidy @ 5 percent of annual turnover (maximum of Rs 5 lakh) will be provided by the State Government to compensate the higher cost of transportation for units in designated areas and 3 percent of annual turnover (maximum of Rs 3 lakh) for units in other designated areas.

  • State Government will provide grant-in-aid to set up the industrial unit @ 75 percent of expenditure with a ceiling of Rs. 2.00 lakhs per project towards payment of ISO certification, ISI mark, quality marking, BIS & FPO license, trade mark & copyright registration by the national and internationally approved agencies / institutions.

In addition to this, State Government is also implementing the National Mission on Food Processing of Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI) and schemes of the National Horticulture Board. Uttarakhand has been included in the difficult area category by the Ministry of Food Processing Industry (MoFPI) and hence units being set up in Uttarakhand are also eligible for higher incentives under the schemes of MoFPI.

Mega Industrial and Investment Policy, 2013

Government of Uttarakhand has promulgated Mega Industrial and Investment Policy 2013. Under this policy inter-alia, following incentives are envisaged:-

  • Projects more than Rs. 75.00 crore investments would be called mega project.
  • For setting up of Mega Project, 50% concession would be given on stamp duty for purchase / lease deed of land.
  • If any industrial unit is engaged in captive generation of electricity in its campus, it will be entitled for 50 percent rebate or exemption on electric duty for a period of seven years.

The industrial unit set up under this policy would be charged Central VAT @ 1% only.

Nodal Agency for Food Processing Sector in the State

For promotion and growth of food processing industries in the state, Department of Horticulture & Food Processing is the nodal agency. For implementation of National Mission on Food Processing in the State a separate Mission Directorate with Mission Director has been created.

Sector Specific State Bodies/Agencies

State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited (SIDCUL) plays a key role in industrial development of the state- both in terms of policy formulation and infrastructure development. Industries Association of Uttarakhand (IAU) is an apex body of small and medium scale industries of Uttarakhand and assists in the development of small and medium scale enterprises in the state. For promotion and growth of food processing industries in the state, Department of Horticulture & Food Processing is the nodal agency. For implementation of National Mission on Food Processing in the State, a separate Mission Directorate with Mission Director has been created.

Potential Areas for Investment

Based on raw material availability in the state and adjoining areas, the following processable activities hold potential in the state. The list is indicative and may not be treated as exhaustive.  

  • Fruit processing to make juices, pulp, pickles, murabba, fruit candies, concentrate nectar etc
  • Vegetable processing for canned, frozen, vegetable juices, dehydrated, sliced, diced products etc
  • Medicinal, Essential oils and Aromatic Plants Processing including herbal and Ayurvedic health boosters like chwayanparsh, health drinks, candies, extracts oils etc
  • Milk and Dairy Products
  • Processed products derived from the animal husbandry sector
  • Emerging areas like organic food products

Export of Horticulture produce during 2012-13


  • Flowers to Holland and other EU countries worth Rs 1.00 crore.
  • Culinary herbs & aromatic produce worth Rs 29.0 crore.
  • Honey worth Rs   0.7crore.
  • Mushroom worth Rs 10.0 crore.
  • Export of frozen peas worth Rs 15.55 crore.
  • Apple plants to Nepal worth Rs 2.00 crore.

Special projects to promote Export


    • A centre for production of high quality bulbs of Lilium, Zantideschia and Gladiolus was established at Chaffi, Bhimtal, District Nainital in collaboration with a reputed company of Netherlands-Indo Dutch Horticulture Technologies. This centre has successfully developed tissue culture protocols for flowers. This centre is also producing grafted apple plants with clonal rootstocks and supplying the same to all Apple producing states as well as to Nepal.
    • To promote Export of fruits and vegetables from the State, 3 projects are being setup with 100% assistance of APEDA, viz CA storage for Apple, Vapour Heat Treatment Plant for Mango and IQF for Pea.
    • To promote Export of spices from the State, with 100% assistance from Spices Board, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India, Mini Spices Park at Majri Grant, District Dehradun is being setup.

Key Links (Department of Industries, Uttarakhand) (Department of Agriculture, Uttarakhand) (Uttarakhand Krishi Utpadan Mandi Parisad) (Directorate of Food Processing) State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited (SIDCUL) (Department of Economics and Statistics, Uttarakhand) (Department of Animal Husbandary, Uttarakhand) (agro industries related information) and (for all horti and agri production information)


निदेशालय उद्यान एवं खाद्य प्रसंस्करण, उत्तराखण्ड,

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